詞匯法對高職學生英語口語流利性影響的實證研究An Empirical Study of the Effects of L

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Abstract Oral English teaching in vocational colleges aims to cultivate students ability to use the language, by improving their listening and speaking skills to improve students practical communication skills. Oral communication ability mainly depen
Abstract
Oral English teaching in vocational colleges aims to cultivate students' ability to use the language, by improving their listening and speaking skills to improve students’ practical communication skills. Oral communication ability mainly depends on pronunciation, intonation, enunciation, fluency, proper words, right grammar, substantial content and clear logic. Oral fluency is one of the indicators for measuring students’ ability of speaking. For many Chinese students, especially for non-English-major students in vocational colleges, it is difficult to accomplish a real communication task easily and fluently, although they have learned English for almost ten years. As far as English teaching methods are concerned, traditional approach of English teaching is grammar-translation method which focus on grammar teaching and written exercises but ignors training students’ listening and speaking abilities in our country. The author analyzed the limitations of traditional English teaching method  and the main problems which the non- English-major students in a vocational college have in their learning oral English and tried to study the effects of lexical approach in oral Englsih teaching on oral Englsih fluency.
In recent years, more and more linguists have realized that language output is not a process that is subject to the rules of syntax, but a process of extracting phrases from memory. Michael Lewis believed that language is not composed of traditional grammar and vocabulary, but is composed of prefabricated chunks. At present, although lexical approach has been gradually applied to language teaching, few scholars pay attention to the use of lexical approach in oral English among non-English majors in vocational colleges. So, this thesis focused on the use of lexical approach in oral English teaching of vocational college students and analyzed the effect of lexical approach on the oral English fluency of vocational college students. This study tried to answer the following questions by using teaching experiment: 
(1) Using oral tests to understand that compared to traditional teaching strategies, whether lexical approach is more able to improve higher vocational students’ oral English fluency;
(2) Using questionnaire to understand the impact of lexical approach on students' oral English learning and students' evaluation on lexical approach, so as to explain why lexical approach has an impact on student's oral test results. 
(3) Using interview method to understand whether lexical approach has an important value for solving the long-standing problems faced by Chinese higher vocational students in oral English learning, and what improvements the current lexical approach needs to make.
 Sixty non-English-major students out of two classes in Shandong Yingcai University were chosen as participants in this empirical study. First class was an experimental class including thirty students, they were taught by using lexical approach. Thirty students in another class was a control class and were taught by adopting a grammar-translation teaching strategy. The experiment lasted a semester,18 weeks. In this study, it made use of oral test, questionnaire and interview to collect data to evaluate the oral English fluency of the two groups of students, and to collect the evaluation from students of the experimental group on lexical approach. At the first week, a oral test was conducted for the students to understood whether there was a statistical difference between the oral English performance of the two groups of students, by doing so to divide them into high, middle and low levels. Then a pre-questionnaire was carried out to understand the questions faced when they spoke English. During the following sixteen weeks, students in the experimrntal class were taught by using lexical approach while students in the control class were taught by using traditional English teaching method, grammar-teching method. After seventeen weeks of implementing the experiment, an oral English test was carried out to see if there were significant differences in the oral English fluency between the two groups. Then they were required to answer the post-questionnairer to understand their views and evaluations on lexical approach. And in the last week, six students were selected randomly from the experimental group and were interviewed by the author in order to to know their inner thoughts towards lexical approach. With the help of SPSS V22.0, the analysis of the quantitative and qualitative data led to the following findings: 
    (1) Compared with traditional oral English teaching, lexical approach could promote the students' oral English. Lexical approach can improve the oral English fluency of the students of high and middle levels, but it has less impact on the students of a low level.
    (2) The type and quantity of chunk output is positively related to the oral English fluency of non-English majors in vocational colleges.
    (3) Processing and extraction of chunks in oral English fluency of non-Englsih majors in vovational colleges can alleviate the syntactic burden of recounstructing discourse expression.
   During the process of writing the paper, the author also found some difficulties and limitations, for example, the time is too limited to study completely the effect of lexical approach on oral English fluency, as each participant has their own characteristic, and their knowledge, intelligence, ability and motivations of language learning. Oral fluency can also be influenced by speakers’ self-confidence, physical conditions, and familiarity to a topic.
Keywords: lexical approach; oral English fluency; chunk; vocational colleges; non-English majors
摘要
高職院校英語口語教學的目標是培養學生運用英語的能力,提高其聽說技能,尤其是提高學生的口語交際能力。口語交際能力主要取決于語音、語調、清晰度、流利性、恰當的詞匯、正確的語法、充實的內容和清晰的邏輯,而口語流利度是衡量口語能力的重要指標之一。在我國,很多學生,包括高職院校非英語專業的學生,盡管其已有十多年的英語學習經歷,但仍然很難用英語進行流利交際。就英語教學法而言,傳統英語教學注重語法教學和寫作練習而忽略了學生聽說能力的實際培養。筆者分析了傳統英語教學法的局限性及高職院校非英語專業學生在英語口語學習過程中所面臨的問題,試圖通過在英語口語教學過程中運用Michael Lewis的語塊教學法(Lexical Approach)來研究此教學法對高職非英語專業學生英語口語流利度的影響。
     近年來,越來越多的語言學家意識到語言產出不是一個受制于句法規則的過程,而是從記憶中提取短語單位的過程。Michael Lewis認為語言并非由傳統的語法和詞匯組成,而是由多詞的預制語塊組成。目前雖然語塊教學法已經開始被應用到英語教學中,但對語塊教學法在高職院校非英語專業學生的口語教學中的實證研究很少見。因此,本文研究通過語塊策略在高職院校非英語專業學生口語學習中的應用來分析語塊教學法對高職非英語專業學生口語流利度的影響。本研究試圖回答以下問題:
(1)運用口語測試的方法來了解語塊教學策略相比傳統教學策略是否能夠更加提高高職學生的英語口語流利度。
(2)運用問卷調查的方法來了解語塊教學方法對于學生口語學習方法的影響以及學生對于語塊教學法的評價,以此來解釋語塊教學法為什么對于學生口語測試結果產生影響。
(3)運用訪談的方法了解語塊教學策略對于解決中國高職學生在口語學習過程中的長期以來所面臨的問題是否具有重要價值,以及當前的語塊教學策略還有哪些改進的地方。
     本實證研究選取山東英才學院兩個班級60名非英語專業學生為研究對象。其中一個班級30名學生為實驗班,采用語塊教學策略;另一個班級30名學生為控制班,采用傳統語法教學法。試驗周期為一個學期,18周。在本研究中, 利用口語測試、問卷調查和訪談等方式收集數據,評估兩個班學生的口語流利程度,并收集實驗班學生對語塊教學法的評價。第一周,進行口語測試,了解兩個班學生的英語口語水平并將實驗班學生分為高、中、低水平三組;進行問卷調查,了解其英語口語學習過程中存在的問題。在接下來的16周中,實驗班的學生在口語教學過程中采用語塊教學法,而控制班的學生則采用傳統的英語教學方法——語法教學法進行英語口語教學。在進行了17周的實驗之后,再針對兩個班的學生的英語口語學習進行口語測試和問卷調查,以了解他們英語口語流利度的差異和對語塊教學法的看法和評價。最后一周,從實驗班隨機選取6名學生,并由筆者進行訪談,以了解實驗對象對語塊教學法的態度和學習動機。借助SPSS V22.0數據進行定量和定性分析,目前得出以下結論:
    (1) 與傳統英語口語教學相比,語塊教學法可以提高學生的英語口語水平,其中對高、中水平層次的學生影響較大,但對低水平的學生影響較小。
    (2) 語塊輸出的種類和數量與高職院校非英語專業學生的口語流利程度呈正相關。
    (3) 語塊教學過程中語塊的加工和提取減輕了重構話語表達的句法負擔,縮短反應總時間,提高語速和音速。
    本研究存在一定的困難和局限性:一學期的實驗時間稍短,不足以充分研究語塊教學對高職非英語專業學生口語流利度的影響;學生個體差異大:已有知識、智力、語言學習能力、學習態度和學習動機不盡相同。口語流利性還會受到言語者自信心、身體狀況、對話題的熟悉度及準備是否充分等多種因素的影響。
關鍵詞:語塊教學法;英語口語流利性;語塊;高職院校;非英語專業學生
 
Chapter 1 Introduction
1.1 Background of the Research
At the end of the 20th century, with the impetus and support of the Ministry of Education, China's higher vocational college education has gained rapid development, an important feature is the emphasis on the combination of theory and practice to cultivate students' ability to apply theory in practice (Yang, 2002). As far as English teaching in vocational college education is concerned, one of the important goals of English teaching is to cultivate students’ ability to use language and improve their ability of using oral English in communication. Students’ ability of using oral English in communication is mainly determined by their pronunciation, intonation, fluency; grammar, the use of words, and so on (Mao, 2008). Among them, oral English fluency is one of the indicators to measure students’ spoken language ability. Although in China, students began to learn English in primary schools, the vast majority of ordinary university graduates, including vocational college students are unable to use English fluently in communication. This is clearly contrary to the goal of vocational college English education (Yang, 2002). The root cause of this problem lies in that the current English learning environment, teaching methods used in Chinese vocational colleges is not conducive to cultivating and improving students' oral English fluency, and there is less research from the colleges, teachers and related researchers on improving oral English fluency (Yang, 2002). In the context of China's increasingly open economy, it is great theoretical and practical significance to pay attention to cultivating vocational college students with strong foreign language communication ability to meet the needs of foreign trade and communication.
Content 
 
Abstract I
摘要 II
Chapter 1 Introduction 1
1.1 Background of the Research 1
1.2 Objective and Significance of the Research 1
1.3 Organization of the Thesis 3
1.4 Summary 4
Chapter 2 Literature Review 5
2.1 Lexical Approach 5
2.1.1 Definition of Chunk 5
2.1.2 Types of Chunk 6
2.1.3 Definition of Lexical Approach 8
2.1.4 Theoretical Basis of Lexical Approach 9
2.1.5 Related Researches on Lexical Approach at Home and Abroad 12
2.2 Oral English Fluency 13
2.2.1 Definition of Oral English Fluency 13
2.2.2 Factors of Oral English Fluency 14
2.2.3 Measurement of Oral English Fluency 15
2.2.4 Related Researches on Chunk and Oral English Fluency 16
2.3 Empirical Researches on Lexical Approach and Oral English Fluency at Home 18
2.4 Summary 20
Chapter 3 Research Methodology 22
3.1 Research Questions 22
3.2 Research Subjects 23
3.3 Research Instruments 23
3.3.1 Oral Testing 23
3.3.2 Indicators for Oral Testing 25
3.3.3 Questionnaire 29
3.3.4 Interview 30
3.4 Reseach Procedures 31
3.4.1 Pre-test 31
3.4.2 Teaching Material 32
3.4.3 Implementation of Lexical Chunk strategy in Experimental Class 32
3.4.4 Implementation of Traditional Teaching Method in Control Class 33
3.4.5 Post-test, Post-questionnaire and Interview 34
3.4.6 Data Analysis 34
3.5 Major Findings of the Study 34
Chapter 4 Results Analysis 36
4.1 Analysis of Pre-test 36
4.2 Analysis of Post-test 37
4.2.1 Time Indicator 37
4.2.2 Content Indicator 46
4.2.3 Expressive Indicator 51
4.2.4 Accuracy Indicator 56
4.3 Analysis of Questionnaires and Interviews 61
4.3.1 Pre-questionnaire 61
4.3.2 Post-questionnaire 63
4.3.3 Interview 64
4.3.4 Analysis of Questionnaires and Interviews 66
Chapter 5 Conclusion 70
5.1 Major Findings of the Study 70
5.2 Pedagogical Implications 72
5.2.1 Core Chunks 72
5.2.2 Practice in Context 73
5.2.3 Accumulation of Chunks 73
5.2.4 Communication and Imitation 73
5.3 Limitations of the Study 74
  5.4 Suggestions for Further Reseach.....................................................................................74
Bibliography 76
Appendix 1 Pre-test 79
Appendix 2 Post-test 80
Appendix 3 Pre-questionnaire 81
Appendix 4 Post-questionnaire 82
Appendix 5 Interview 83
Appendix 6 Raw data 88
Acknowledgement......................................................................................................................77
Published Papers.........................................................................................................................78
 
5.4 Suggestions for Further Research
In future, relevant researches can be improved from the following three aspects. First of all, it should increase the number of research samples as many as possible, through selecting students from different vocational colleges as research objects to study whether lexical approach has a positive effect on the oral English fluency of students with different backgrounds. Then, the time for carrying out lexical approach can be extended to two semesters, which can better assess whether lexical approach also has the same positive effect on students with poor academic performance. Finally, a variety of forms can be used to evaluate the oral English fluency of students, including: dialogue, picture talk, real environment simulation and so on, so as to make a more objective evaluation on the real effect of lexical approach.
 
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Appendix 1 Pre-test
Part I Greetings and Introductions
Teachers greeted the students. Teachers asked the students to introduce: 
-Where their hometowns are? 
-Which subject do you like most, why? 
- Which subject is the most difficult? why?
Part II Background setting
Today is Saturday, an audience wants to go to the cinema to see a film, but he does not know how to go to the cinema, and what firms are broadcasted in the cinema, as well as names of the firms and film prices. At the same time, this Saturday in Wanda Theater, No. 93 Jianguo Road, Beijing Chaoyang District, a film named Farewell to My Concubine will be broadcasted at six o'clock in the evening. The leading actor was Zhang Guorong and the film has won several awards, the film price for adults is 100 yuan, 50 yuan for minors and students.
A student was asked to ask another student questions according to the above content, and the student answered the questions according to the above-mentioned information.
After the communication between the students, the teacher will ask the two students the following questions: 
-How often do you go to see a film? 
-With whom?
- Which film do you like most? 
-Who are your favorite actors? why?
 

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